The pricing convention is to list the point after a dash.

The integer point value, in this case , is known as the handle. When traders negotiate, the handle is usually known and not expressed.

### Actual/365

Listed bond prices are clean prices aka flat prices , which do not include accrued interest. Most bonds pay interest semi-annually. For settlement dates when interest is paid, the bond price is equal to the flat price.

Between payment dates, accrued interest must be added to the flat price, which is often called the dirty price aka all-in price , gross price :. Accrued interest is the interest that has been earned, but not paid, and is calculated by the following formula:. When you actually buy a bond on the secondary market, you would have to pay the former owner of the bond the accrued interest. If this were not so, you could make a fortune buying bonds right before they paid interest then selling them afterward. Because the interest accrues every day, the bond price increases accordingly until the interest payment date, when it drops to its flat price, then starts accruing interest again.

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## Calculating Bond Accrued Interest: Which Method Should You Use?

In calculating the accrued interest, the actual number of days was counted from the last interest payment to the value date. There are 2 other methods where each month counts as 30 days, regardless of the number of days in the month and each year is considered to have days. So, under these methods, there is always 3 days between February 28 and March 1, because each month counts as 30 days, including February, even though February has either 28 or 29 days.

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By the same reasoning, there are 25 days between January 15 and February 10, even though there are actually 26 days between those dates. When figuring accrued interest using any day-count convention, the 1 st day is counted, but not the last day. So in the previous example, January 15 is counted, but not February This is determined thus:. The number of days are then divided by , then multiplied by the coupon rate to determine the accrued interest:.

### Description

Corporate and Municipal Bonds. As already stated, most bond markets outside of the U. How much must you pay? If the settlement date fell on a interest payment date, the bond price would equal the listed price: Effectively if the start date d1 is 31 then it changes to 30, and if the second date d2 is 31 it too changes to This basis is used for calculating accrued interest on domestic US bonds e. Yankee bonds, federal agencies, corporate and municipal bonds. Each month is assumed to have 30 days, with an exception that if the last day is the 31st and the first day is not 30th or 31st then that month has 31 days.

So the rule is if d1 is 31 it changes to 30, and if d2 is 31 change it to 30 but only if d1 is either 30 or This basis is commonly used for Eurobonds, and the day count fraction is just one divided by the number of interest payments per year. Thus the coupon payments are always the same and any small difference in the number of days between successive coupon payments is ignored.

Simple interest does not offer the opportunity to earn interest on interest, ie, there is no compounding of interest.

## Bond Pricing

Offers the opportunity for interest payments to be reinvested in order to earn interest on interest. Compound interest is typically used for instruments greater than one year. Compounding can be taken to an extreme in which the interest is continuously compounded. Continuously compounded rates are rarely quoted in practice for outright deposits or borrowings, although they are used extensively in valuing options.

CD daycounts cause interest cash flows to be proportional to the number of ACT days in the period, i.

## Glossary of Municipal Securities Terms

Note: bonds with CD daycounts always use the CD yield method regardless of the yield method specified. This convention is used in particular in the Brazilian market. The number of accrued days is calculated as the number of market days in the accrual period.

The accrual factor is calculated as the number of accrued market days divided by Please see holidays.